Taif Agreement Date
Taif Accord attempted to exercise the sovereignty of the Lebanese state on its internationally recognized territory and therefore had the provisions for the withdrawal of troops. At the time of the signing of the agreement, Syria has about 40,000 troops in Lebanon, which control about 65% of the country. Israel had a force of 1,500-3,000 in southern Lebanon in the so-called security zone. Israel had also relocated about 200,000 of its 2.7 million inhabitants to the controlled area. [fn] Sandra M. Saseen, “The Taif Accord and Lebanon`s Struggle to Regain Its Sovereignty,” American University Journal of International Law and Policy 6, No. 1(1990): 57, footnotes 2, 3. [/efn_note] Syria had accepted the principle of a possible withdrawal of troops from all Lebanese territory, but no withdrawal took place in 1989. Similarly, Israel continued its occupation. The agreement also provided for the disarmament of all national and non-national militias. Everyone has disarmed, except Shiite Hezbollah and Fatah and non-Lebanese Hamas, P.F.L.P.
The agreement was ratified on 4 November 1989. Parliament met the next day at Qoleiat Air Base in northern Lebanon and elected President Rene Mouawad 409 days after Amine Gemayel evacuated the post at the end of his term in 1988. Mouawad was unable to occupy the presidential palace, which was still used by General Michel Aoun. Mouawad was assassinated 17 days later in a car bomb attack in Beirut on November 22, as his motorcade returned from ceremonies on Lebanon`s Independence Day. His successor was Elias Hrawi, who remained in office until 1998. In this context, many have argued that the revision of the Constitution, which contains many of the themes of the Taif Agreement, needs to be revised in order to deal with ambiguities that have compromised the proper functioning of the institutions. After the massive demonstrations of the cedar revolutions that called for Syria`s withdrawal from Lebanon in February 2005, Syrian Deputy Foreign Minister Waleed Al-Mualem said: “The important resignations that have taken place so far and will take place at a later date will be in agreement with Lebanon on the basis of the Taif agreement and related mechanisms.” In a February 25 press release, a White House spokesman highlighted UN Security Council Resolution 1559.  However, it is difficult to imagine how the Lebanese political system and constitutional institutions would function if the Taif agreement had been properly implemented.
The members of the Lebanese parliament of 1972 were the most likely to participate in the 1989 negotiations. The mandate of this Parliament was extended eight times between 1972 and 1992, with parliamentary elections interrupted as a result of the war. Yet it was considered the only constitutional institution that could demonstrate any kind of “unity and legality.”